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Identifying Scholarly References
In general, most journal articles, edited books, and professional trade books published by major publishers meet this criteria. Additionally, conference papers generally are considered to meet this criteria even though the peer review is typically just of the abstract, not the entire paper. For this reason, academic papers rely primarily, if not exclusively, on these resources.
Below is a list of some commonly used references that are not scholarly and should be avoided in most situations:
2) Self-help books and books intended for a general or lay audience
3) Most websites (Few websites could be considered a scholarly resource, even faculty pages on .edu websites and .gov websites. These may have useful information in gaining some background about your topic, but rarely are scholarly resources. See also Internet Resources and Scholarly Writing)
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